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Instead of providing a protective rim to contain the water or a central island plinth for statues or people to perch on, the two-tier circular sculpted plinth is lurching into the water. And where we would expect the head of a merry putto between the swags, Titian has substituted the head of a wild, elderly gorgon or witch, who is the only figure in the picture to stare directly at the spectator fig. The arched stone canopy looks at first like a massive version of a gazebo transposed to woodland, but its disconnected and incomplete parts imply it was never an independent structure, and is a ruined fragment of a bigger building.

The head on the keystone — a lion perhaps — is worryingly crooked with a strange grimace like a statue about to come to life. The polychromy of the groined vault under the arch strikes a discordant note as the remains of a bright interior overtaken by the darker forces of nature fig. The stones of the outer arch begin strongly above and behind Actaeon, but then blur and connect in an unreal way to the pier with the deer skull on the right, while the bottom of the left-hand pier is non-existent. This structural confusion adds to our sense of unease.

Instead of the skull forming part of an Ancient Roman frieze of bucrania ox skulls , an elegant repeated pattern which carried sacrificial significance but no longer smacked of the kill, here the lone skull is of an individually imagined animal, only recently dead.

It may be attached to a pier and is the same colour brown, but it seems to be bone. All these roles are tightly interconnected and can be further subsumed within the category of visual rhetoric — the art of persuading the viewer — for architecture was used by painters as a powerful tool to move and influence the spectator. Artists addressed and even incorporated their audience or congregations into the work in more direct, gestural ways, and employed architecture to this end.

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Both architectural forms are designed to enclose and protect their precious contents, yet they are also open-ended and address the public with their emphatic structures. Although painting and architecture are usually considered to be two different arts or separate disciplines, artists and architects have always been inspired by each other and have shared ideas and practices. Architectural painting was not a Renaissance invention. Buildings have been part of the essential repertoire of artists in every era. Furthermore, throughout the Middle Ages artists used architectural inventions in their icons, frescoes, manuscripts and sculptures, and Italian Renaissance artists employed designs and details from every type of medieval artefact fig.

An important reason behind the close inter-relationship between painting and architecture in the Renaissance was that the training of artists and architects led to a more integrated practice in the arts. There was no specific educational programme or apprenticeship for architects. Brunelleschi was apprenticed as a goldsmith, Alberti studied law at university and went on to be a cleric, scholar and writer, Giuliano da Sangallo began as a carpenter, Bramante fig.

Despite a lack of formal training in architecture, skills were transferred between the visual arts. Painting and architecture were closely interwoven and nourished each other. It was not a straightforward case of the large scale, three-dimensional, inhabited medium of architecture being precisely and respectfully imitated in the smaller, two-dimensional, fictional medium of painting, as though the power flowed in one direction, the smaller being a pale imitation of the larger. Nor was architecture translated into painting as though it had been first expressed in a different language, for embryonic architecture already existed in the visual imagination of painters, sculptors, carpenters, goldsmiths, printmakers and other artists.

An architectural imagination is not the prerogative of architects. On the contrary, the architectural creations of Renaissance painters were treated as inventions to be manipulated and disseminated by builders, architects and patrons. Although tracing the architectural legacy of these imagined buildings lies beyond the scope of this publication, paintings like these fed the architectural imagination and visual culture of the period, often foreshadowing what was built by a decade or even a generation.

Pictures were storehouses of architectural ideas.

This fusion of temple and palace from which Paris abducts Helen of Troy is a remarkably advanced design that adopts the classical orders and other antique style details from Florentine buildings and reconfigures them. Yet what Zanobi Strozzi produced is more than a mere amalgamation of his sources, for he achieved a unified new design — a prototype for a grand domestic building.

Significantly, this type of palace was not built before the early 16th century, 50 years after the visual concept was being developed in painting and relief sculpture.

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Studi su la dolce prospettiva. Milan, , pp. Parronchi based his dating on the return to Florence of Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, a mathematician friend of Brunelleschi's who had previously taught in Padua. The painter Giuliano d'Arrigo Pesello, who was on the advisory committee for the cupola, also produced wooden models in Cesare Guasti.

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Florence, , p. In his written report on the project, Giovanni di Gherardo Gherardi refers to another wooden model made by Brunelleschi in c. Brunelleschi and Ghiberti were commissioned to prepare yet another in September Cesare Guasti. Florence, , pp.

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Probably other models were also made, as the building committees found them the best way to evaluate the project. Richard Offner and Klara Steinweg. New York, , plate ii. Actually [there should be] two ambulatories, one above the other, within a finely decorated cornice. The upper ambulatory should be open. Adapted from Howard Saalman.

Studies in Architecture, London, , p. London, , pp. The only section of the ballatoio that was executed was the part that was built by Baccio d'Agnolo on the southeast side of the cathedral in It was never finished, seemingly because Michelangelo, who compared it to a grasshopper cage, said that it subverted Brunelleschi's design Giorgio Vasari.

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Text edited by Rosanna Bettarini. Commentary edited by Paola Barocchi. Alessandro Nova in Henry A. Millon and Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani. The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. The Representation of Architecture. Cesare Guasti, ed. Santa Maria del Fiore: la costruzione della chiesa e del campanile secondo i documenti tratti dall'Archivio dell'Opera Secolare e da quello di Stato. Prager and Gustina Scaglia. Brunelleschi: Studies of His Technology and Inventions.

Cambridge, Mass. Antonio di Tuccio Manetti, the architect's biographer, noted that the excessive width of the stone fittings around these windows seems to have disturbed Brunelleschi, in particular with regard to his plan for the ballatoio Antonio di Tuccio Manetti. Edited by Domenico De Robertis. Introduction and critical notes by Giuliano Tanturli. Testi e documenti, 2. Milan, , p. The surviving wood model see Florence, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo of uncertain date has the occhi , but they are shown without their molding.

The only explanations are either that that part of the model dates before , or that, if Brunelleschi designed this model, he hoped a different solution would be eventually reached. Howard Saalman. Filippo Brunelleschi: The Buildings.

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University Park, Pa. Richard Krautheimer in collaboration with Trude Krautheimer-Hess.

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Lorenzo Ghiberti. Princeton Monographs in Art and Archaeology, Princeton, , plate As noted by Christine Smith in Henry A. The Medici may have also owned Brunelleschi's views of the baptistery and the Palazzo Vecchio, or at least copies of them, as several versions of these subjects are recorded in the copy of the inventory of Lorenzo de' Medici's effects. Libro d'inventario dei beni di Lorenzo il Magnifico. Andrew Ladis. Columbia, Mo. In the Florentine Filippo Villani's De origine civitatis Florentiae et eiusdem famosis civibus of , Taddeo is described as being particularly talented in his representation of architecture.

His fame with this regard did not die out in the following decades.

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A drawing after the mural exists Andrew Ladis. London, , fig. Giorgio Vasari.